Soil compaction is a big issue for agricultural production. Compacted soil particles reduce the pore space in the soil profile, thus preventing the flow of air and water through the soil layer. This compaction also impedes the growth of plant roots (left). When rain events happen on a compacted soil, the water runs off the surface of the soil instead of penetrating into the soil surface (right). This increases rates of erosion and prevents the deeper soil layers from being replenished with moisture.